The app is located in the xDai instance of BlockScout, available at https://blockscout.com/xdai/mainnet. Go to the Apps dropdown and select either Validators, Active Pools, or Inactive Pools to access.
Once you are in the DApp, connect your web3wallet (like MetaMask) to participate. The Staking Operations section details various actions you can take to Stake, claim rewards etc.
A validator runs a node that verifies transactions and finalizes blocks on the xDai chain. Each validator must provide the minimum STAKE collateral (20K STAKE) into their pool and setup a functional node to participate. They start as candidates, and have the chance to become validators each week when a new validator set is chosen.
The max number of validators in a validator set is 19. This is called a validator set and is chosen each week from the group of validator candidates.
The maximum number of candidates is 3000.
If there are more than 19 suitable candidates, the top 19 are chosen based on the total amount of stake in their pool + a random number.
A delegator is a STAKE holder who places STAKE in a validator candidates pool. If that candidate becomes a validator, the delegator also receives rewards. By placing STAKE, delegators vote on the candidates they think will make the best validators. 200 minimum delegation per validator candidate.
Each staking epoch is ~1 week (120992 blocks).
Rewards are distributed at the end of a staking epoch to active validators and delegators. Participants must claim their STAKE using the claim function to get rewards back to their wallet.
You will order a withdrawal for the entire delegation amount. At the end of the epoch, you will be removed as a delegator for that validator. See the question below for more details on the process.
You will need to wait until the staking epoch ends to claim your withdrawal. The claim functionality will be available at the beginning of the next epoch. Here are the general steps for withdrawing and claiming STAKE.
Order a withdrawal
If you want to maintain your delegator status, be sure to leave at least 200 STAKE.
If you want to remove yourself as a delegator, order the entire amount for withdrawal.
Wait until the staking epoch ends
After the epoch ends, a claim icon will appear. You will process this transaction and your ordered STAKE will be added to your wallet.
In all likelihood you are looking at the app during the final blocks of a staking epoch. During the last 4332 blocks all staking actions are disallowed. This prevents any potential validator set manipulation at the end of an epoch. To prevent confusion, all staking-related icons (withdraw, add, claim, move) are temporarily removed from the UI. They will appear again once a new staking epoch begins.
See the rewards in a dual token environment post for more information. As a validator, you will always receive at least 30% of your pool's rewards, and more if delegators contribute less than 70% to the pool. Rewards are based on how much STAKE is staked in the protocol as well as chain-based activity (stable rewards come from bridge fees and transactions). Staking rewards accumulate based on the locked amount, number of delegators, and validator performance.
APY is the current annual yield a pool and delegator are receiving on their staked amounts. While 15% is accrued by pools for all active STAKE in the protocol, other factors contribute to individual pool and delegator rewards.
APY is a dynamic number which adjusts often based on the number of delegators in a pool, the number of blocks skipped by a validator, and rewards from bridge fees. All of these can have an impact on the expected APY. The percentage of stake held by delegators typically has the largest influence. Pools with a lower Stakes Ratio typically have a higher APY, but have a lower likelihood to be selected as validators once there are more than 19 total validators.
The APY listed is the expected APY if all staking ratios remained as they are currently. It is not a long-term expected APY. The system is constantly changing (skipped blocks, bridge fees, stakes added and removed) and the APY adjusts accordingly.
You can quickly find the current APY through the delegation popup. In this example:
1 is the current APY (17.98%)
2 is the expected reward payout for the epoch (~17.87 STAKE). Multiplying this number by 52 gets the expected yearly payout assuming the current staking ratios. In this case, it is ~929.24.
3 is the current working STAKE amount. You can divide 929.24 by 5,165.17 to get an approximate expected APY, but it may not match the current APY depending on the makeup of the pool and numbers rounding. See How is APY calculated below for the exact formula.
The following formula is used by the contracts to dynamically calculate the current APY for a pool and for each individual delegator.
Reward Share *
Pool Reward /
Stake Amount *
Epochs Per Year
Reward Share: Generally
Stake Amount /
Total Stake Amount. However, this is adjusted if delegators have staked more than 70% of the total stake amount in the pool. Validators always receive a minimum 30% of the share.
Stake Amount: Amount of tokens staked (does not include pending stake)
Total Stake Amount: Amount of tokens staked by a validator and all delegators in a pool (does not include pending stake)
Total Reward *
Blocks Created by Pool Validator /
Total Blocks in Epoch
Total Reward: Total Reward for all pools (non-pending stake sum for all validator pools * 15% APY + Bridge Fees)
Blocks Created by Pool Validator: Number of blocks created by the current pool validator during the staking epoch
Total Blocks in Epoch: Total blocks created by all pool validators in the epoch.
Epochs Per Year:
31536000 (seconds/yr) /
Current Average Block Time /
120992 (current blocks/epoch)
A pool becomes inactive when a candidate/validator elects to stop participating in the consensus process. This is different from a ban, where a malicious validator is immediately removed from consensus.
If you see a current validator's pool status as inactive, the validator will exit the validator set once the current staking epoch is complete. Prior to the end of the epoch, the validator will continue with their responsibilities, and any delegators will receive rewards once the staking epoch is finished. Rewards may be diminished if the validator's participation was limited during that epoch.
Inactive pools are not considered for the next validator set, and will not become validators again unless the pool is reactivated by the validator. Delegators who remain in an inactive pool for the next epoch will not receive any staking rewards for that epoch.
Yes, rewards will still be distributed iff a pool is inactivated during a staking epoch. Rewards for the current staking epoch will be accrued as usual.
The reward amount depends on how long the validator has been working, and the reward corresponds to the validator's participation in consensus during the staking epoch.
For example, if the validator was working fine, didn’t disconnect their node, and produced all blocks they should have produced (went through all AuRa rounds during the epoch), its pool will receive 100% of the possible pool’s reward.
However, if the validator skipped half the staking epoch (only produced 50% of blocks they should have produced), their pool will receive 50% of th max possible pool’s reward. If a validator was malicious and was removed by the system for misbehavior, its pool won’t receive rewards. Pool rewards also depend on how much other participants staked into other pools. Read more about reward distributions.
Pool inactivation is the pool validator's decision. They can inactivate themselves through the interface, or they may be inactivated if serious performance issues are not addressed. In the current implementation, a pool can be inactivated through a governance multisignature process in exceptional cases where there are too many block skips or if a node is too weak and works too slowly (i.e. if the validator significantly degrades network performance). This is only implemented if a deficient node significantly impacts chain stability.
In the future a governance mechanism will enable validators to vote on the inactivation process and remove nodes that are negatively impacting chain performance. We plan to implement a monitoring tool which will provide insights into the performance of each validator pool.
Once the current staking epoch finishes, you can claim your reward and withdraw your staked amount (or move the stake to another validator pool). Due to POSDAO protocol rules, it is not possible withdraw STAKE immediately if a pool becomes inactive during a staking epoch. You must wait until a new epoch starts to move or withdraw your stake.